"But it's important to recognise that what we're seeing this year is due to warmer stratospheric temperatures". These compounds can last for several decades in the atmosphere and are extremely damaging to ozone during that time, breaking it down in huge quantities. Ozone is a molecule that occurs naturally in small amounts that is comprised of three oxygen atoms.
The ozone layer is a region of Earth's stratosphere with a high concentration of a gas called ozone that helps to shield the planet from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Taking action to reduce the amount of CFCs in the atmosphere has had a real impact. The chemical reactions are encouraged by polar stratospheric cloud formation, but in recent years, warmer stratospheric air has helped limit these reactions and curtailed the growth of the ozone hole. In warmer temperatures fewer polar stratospheric clouds form and they don't persist as long, limiting the ozone-depletion process.
NASA and NOAA explain that the ozone hole consists of an area of heavily-depleted ozone in the upper reaches of the stratosphere.
Satellites, including NASA's Aura satellite, the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite and NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System NOAA-20 satellite, measure ozone from space. This also helped to boost ozone levels there. In a divergence from the norm, NOAA reports that there were no areas above the frozen continent this year that completely lacked ozone.
While scientists are still trying to make sense of it, it's believed to be down to unusual weather patterns in the upper atmosphere. Similar patterns were seen in 1988 and 2002. Scientist Susan Strahan says that if global warming had not happened, we would probably have a more typical ozone hole.
Warmer air weakened the Antarctic polar vortex, a current of high-speed air circling the South Pole that typically keeps the coldest air near or over the pole itself, which slowed significantly (from an average wind speed of 161 miles per hour / 260 kmph to 67 miles per hour / 107 kmph).
The slowing vortex allowed air to sink in the lower stratosphere, where it warmed the air and inhibited cloud formation. A plot of ozone levels shows small but definite increases in the minimum level of ozone detected by the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) since the mid-1990s. So, the ozone hole over Antarctica tends to be much bigger in the southern winter.
However, such patterns can be mitigated under usually high temperatures.
The charge accuses the parents of attempting to bribe officials at an organization that receives federal funding. The second indictment added a charge of conspiracy to commit money laundering for a smaller group.
Crews in water-dropping helicopters were helping attack the flames in the difficult-to-access hillside area, LAFD Capt. He said the blaze started at the base of Palisades Drive and burned through about 18 acres within 15 minutes.
The Saints are off in Week 9, so it wouldn't be all that surprising to see the team hold Brees back until Week 10 just to be safe. Brees made his intentions known to ESPN's Mike Triplett following New Orleans' 36-25 victory over the Chicago Bears on Sunday.
New England won that meeting, but only by a 16-10 score which also included Bills QB Josh Allen exiting the game due to injury. The Falcons acquired Sanu prior to the 2016 season, and he's enjoyed the best stretch of his career since arriving in Atlanta.
Blue Origin will command a lunar lander team to provide the Descent Element used to bring a crew down to the surface of the moon. Originally, NASA planned to take astronauts back to the lunar surface in 2028 - the last moon landing with humans was in 1972.
The Montreal Protocol , a landmark global environmental treaty that took effect in 1988, has reduced CFC emissions worldwide. The purple and blue colors are where there is the least ozone, and the yellows and reds are where there is more ozone.
Allen, however, could be forced to shoulder more of the load when the team takes on the San Francisco 49ers in Week 8. Allen, who went undrafted in 2018, has helped dig the Panthers (4-2) out of a 0-2 hole to start the season.
They watched the ceremony on their phones outside and listened as a gun salute was sounded when it was complete. There have been calls to revise the succession rules, but so far there have been no formal moves.
Jimmy Carter hospitalized after another fall at Georgia home
Carter, a former peanut farmer and Georgia governor, was the nation's 39th president and served one term from 1977 to 1981. But they still maintain a busy schedule, she said, traveling to Atlanta monthly to spend time at the Carter Center.
One injured in shooting near California high school
Police officers search for a suspect after a shooting at Ridgway High School, in Santa Rosa, Calif., on October 22, 2019. Officers found the injured teen, a student, bleeding from his arm in the school's gym, according to authorities.
'Anonymous' Trump critic coming out with book
Trump is now facing an impeachment inquiry in the Democratic-majority House of Representatives for abuse of power. He also demanded on Twitter that the Times turn over "the GUTLESS anonymous person" to the government "at once".
'E.T.' star arrested for DUI in Oregon
Henry Thomas - the actor who played Elliot in the 1982 Steven Spielberg classic E.T. "The Extra-Terrestrial", in Los Angeles, CA. TMZ reported the auto didn't smell of alcohol , but Thomas showed suspicions of intoxication.