Tuesday, 21 May, 2019


Distant galaxy opens door to 'uncharted period of cosmic history'

Distant galaxy opens door to 'uncharted period of cosmic history' Distant galaxy opens door to 'uncharted period of cosmic history'
Kristine Garrett | 17 May, 2018, 14:13

An global team of astronomers has used observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to determine that star formation in the gravitationally lensed galaxy MACS1149-JD1 started only 250 million years after the Big Bang.

Before the first stars kicked on, the universe was a relatively boring place, consisting primarily of radiation leftover from the Big Bang, as well as hydrogen and helium.

Scientists have determined this measurement based on lines in the ionized oxygen spectra, rather than employing ionized carbon, which is more commonly used when scanning faraway space objects.

The researchers inferred that the signal was emitted 13.3 billion years ago (or 500 million years after the Big Bang), making it the most distant oxygen ever detected by any telescope.

Our current understanding of the beginning of the universe, including the initial formation of stars and galaxies, may be about to change thanks to the recent detection of oxygen in distant space.

The work of Takuya Hashimoto and his group at Osaka Sangyo University sheds light on the formation of the first stars and suggests that future telescopes - such as the James Webb Space Telescope, which will replace the Hubble 'scope in orbit starting in 2020 - could find new evidence on the formation of first-generation stars, Bouwens said.

The oxygen in MACS1149-JD1 was the most distant ever detected.

M. Postman (STScI), the CLASH Team, Hashimoto et al. For this reason, the presence of distant oxygen is a sign there were earlier generations of stars in this galaxy, an emailed press release on the study reported.

Scientists calculated that the galaxy's stars must have formed 250 million years earlier.

"The mature stellar population in MACS1149-JD1 implies that stars were forming back to even earlier times, beyond what we can now see with our telescopes", said Nicolas Laporte, a researcher at University College London/Université de Toulouse and a member of the research team, in a statement. It would have taken several cycles of star-birth and supernova explosions for there to be enough oxygen to be detected by our instruments today, considering the fact that the oldest stars - called Population III stars - had extremely short lifespans of about 2 million years only.

The researchers confirmed the distance of the galaxy with observations from ground-based telescopes in Chile and reconstructed the earlier history of MACS1149-JD1 using infrared data from orbiting telescopes.

"The mature stellar population in MACS1149-JD1 implies that stars were forming back to even earlier times, beyond what we can now see with our telescopes".

"Determining when cosmic dawn occurred is akin to the "Holy Grail" of cosmology and galaxy formation", said Professor Richard Ellis, senior astronomer at University College London. There is renewed optimism we are getting closer and closer to witnessing directly the birth of starlight.

The findings appear in the latest issue of Nature journal. "Since we are all made of a processed stellar material, this is really finding our own origins".

Recommended

loading...
...

Circle raises $110 M, plans to build USD-backed cryptocurrency Circle raises $110 M, plans to build USD-backed cryptocurrency One of these tokens, to be issued this summer, is USD Coin , or USDC, will be backed one-to-one by USA dollar. Cryptocurrencies still suffer from price volatility, so bitcoin can't be the common denominator.

Ebola vaccine arrives in DR Congo amid outbreak Ebola vaccine arrives in DR Congo amid outbreak The BBC reports, "Ebola is a serious infectious illness that causes internal bleeding and often proves fatal". He said epidemiologists are working to identify additional contacts to the 500 already identified.

Instagram CEO Confirms Usage Insights Feature Being Developed Instagram CEO Confirms Usage Insights Feature Being Developed It seems Instagram is ready to embrace the impact of the reduction in usage as soon as such a tool goes live for users. Systrom says Instagram wants the time spent within the app to be "positive and intentional".

Brokerages Anticipate Cisco Systems (CSCO) Will Announce Quarterly Sales of $12.42 Billion Brokerages Anticipate Cisco Systems (CSCO) Will Announce Quarterly Sales of $12.42 Billion In other Cisco Systems news, EVP David Goeckeler sold 20,671 shares of the firm's stock in a transaction on Thursday, March 15th. This repurchase authorization allows the network equipment provider to buy shares of its stock through open market purchases.

Gambling machines to be limited to £2 stakes Gambling machines to be limited to £2 stakes The decision is a victory for campaigners against the excesses of the gambling industry, including a number of Christian groups.

The Miramar desert map comes to PUBG Mobile today The Miramar desert map comes to PUBG Mobile today Final circles on Miramar are often supremely hectic as you might be fighting with other players over one rock, or a single tree. Next up are progress and activity missions, which offer rewards as you level up and based on your activity, respectively.

Utah Tesla driver had hands off wheel before crash Utah Tesla driver had hands off wheel before crash It's now your nearly weekly reminder that you need to stay attentive on Autopilot and that rules of the road still apply. The driver engaged Autosteer and Traffic Aware Cruise Control on multiple occasions during this drive cycle.

The Nintendo Classic is coming back, and for a cheaper price The Nintendo Classic is coming back, and for a cheaper price All these and more will be available with the return of the NES Classic to store shelves on June 29. Both gaming systems were a hit when they were first released.

Riz Ahmed to co-write the screenplay for Ms Marvel Riz Ahmed to co-write the screenplay for Ms Marvel Willow Wilson, and Adrian Alphona, Kamala Khan became Marvel's first Muslim character to headline her own comic book. Ms Marvel , aka Kamala Khan and Marvel's first Muslim superhero, was launched in the comics back in 2013.

Pink Hits Back at Twitter Troll Who Says She Looks 'Old' Pink Hits Back at Twitter Troll Who Says She Looks 'Old' Several of Pink's fans cheered at the concept of her still kicking and screaming on stage at almost 40-aerial stunts included. Her big moment: Victoria's family could be heard in the background screaming in delight for the little girl, 'You did it!

Casinos Weigh In on Supreme Court Sports Gambling Decision Casinos Weigh In on Supreme Court Sports Gambling Decision On Tuesday, he narrowed the window by declaring May 28 as the day Monmouth Park will launch sports betting in New Jersey . Probably not, said Kate Lowenhar-Fisher, a Las Vegas-based attorney who chairs the gaming practice at Dickinson Wright.

Honda to launch Civic, CR-V in H2 of FY2018-19 Honda to launch Civic, CR-V in H2 of FY2018-19 Another highlight of the cabin is the Digipad 2.0 touchscreen infotainment unit that supports Apple CarPlay and Android Auto. Although both the cars are powered by a 1.2-litre petrol engine, the Amaze leads the Xcent in terms of power by 7PS.

Ex-Aston Villa defender Jlloyd Samuel killed in vehicle crash Ex-Aston Villa defender Jlloyd Samuel killed in vehicle  crash Emergency services rushed to the scene on a country lane in High Legh, Cheshire, after his Range Rover collided with a van. After returning to England he became player-manager of Cheshire-based amateur team Egerton.

United States imposes sanctions on Hezbollah leadership United States  imposes sanctions on Hezbollah leadership The deputy chief of Hezbollah, Sheik Naim Qassem, casts his ballot during Lebanon's parliamentary elections in Beirut, Lebanon, May 6, 2018.

Djokovic and Nadal sail into third round in Rome Djokovic and Nadal sail into third round in Rome In the decider, a single break of serve in the seventh game gave Fognini the opportunity and he held to his two serves to win 6/3. Williams had earlier opened her campaign by brushing aside Russia's Elena Vesnina 6-2, 4-6, 7-5 in their last-32 clash.