In one of the most progressive memory studies to date, researchers from the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) have managed to transfer memories between sea snails, ScienceDailyreports.
The research, published in the journal eNeuro, could provide new clues in the search for the physical basis of memory.
Experts noted that the experiment is important to science, despite the fact that it was not quite a full transfer of memory.
The UCLA professor of integrative biology holds a different view, believing that memories are stored in the nuclei of neurons. Experiments in the 1960s, however, suggested RNA could play a role in making memories, though the work was largely written off as irreproducible.
It was "as though we had transferred the memory", study co-author and UCLA professor David Glanzman said, the BBC reported. This research could lead to new ways to lessen the trauma of painful memories with RNA and to restore lost memories.
But Prof Glanzman said: "If memories were stored at synapses, there is no way our experiment would have worked".
To treat memory-related illnesses in humans, we've first got to understand how the brain stores memories in the first place.
Glanzman turned his attention to RNA because of those earlier hints it was related to memory, and also because of recent experiments suggesting long-term memory was stored in the cell bodies of neurons, not synapses.
The researchers studied a species of marine snail known as Aplysia. Like all mollusks, these snails have groups of neurons called ganglia, rather than brains.
The slugs have simple central nervous systems and large nerve cells that make experimental manipulation easier. The procedure sensitised the animals so that when they were prodded in a fleshy spout called a siphon, they contracted their gills in a robust defensive action. But through repeated shocks, the researchers trained them to curl for longer, up to about 50 seconds.
This idea is probably going to strike most of my colleagues as extremely improbable.
RNA stands for ribonucleic acid; it's a large molecule involved in various essential roles within biological organisms - including the assembly of proteins and the way that genes are expressed more generally. The snails had been "sensitised" to the shock.
Remarkably, the scientistsfound that the seven that received the RNA from snails that were given the shocks behaved as if they themselves had received the tail shocks: They displayed a defensive contraction that lasted an average of about 40 seconds. Curiously, the specialists found, including RNA from the snails that had been given stuns likewise created expanded volatility in tactile neurons in a Petri dish; it didn't do as such in engine neurons. But the ones injected with RNA from the trained snails?
At the point when a marine snail is given electric tail stuns, its tangible neurons turn out to be more edgy. Each neuron has several thousand synapses.
He also stressed that the snails did not get hurt: "These are marine snails and when they are alarmed they release a lovely purple ink to hide themselves from predators".
"What we are talking about are very specific kinds of memories, not the sort that says what happened to me on my fifth birthday, or who is the president of the United States."
Apparently, you'll be able to access " voice remote" from the floating action button that now appears in the Android app. Android Police notes that Google's already put up a support page , so it will likely show up for more people in time.
Census Bureau statistics, the percentage of people existing below the poverty line has changed little over the years. In all, 16 protesters were arrested and charged with pedestrian unlawfully in the roadway, said police.
The treatment blocks a key protein in the body's cells that cold viruses normally hijack to self-replicate and spread. Finding two specific compounds, the team produced a novel molecule called IMP-1088, which specifically inhibits NMT.
George Ryan issued a moratorium and later emptied death row, believing the system too fraught with mistakes to be tenable. IL lawmakers can now either vote to accept the changes Rauner proposed, or try to override the veto altogether.
The group later learned they were near the 17th fissure, which opened over the weekend and, as of Monday, is still active. Plant workers last week as a precaution removed 50,000 gallons (189,265 liters) of a flammable gas stored at the site.
Bleszinski rose to prominence in the industry as the lead designer for Epic Games ' Xbox-based " Gears of War " franchise. Bereft of life, expired and having shuffled off the mortal coil, Boss Key Studios is now an ex-game development team.
Lue said the Cavaliers weighed installing Tristan Thompson to combat Horford and help slow the Celtics' interior scoring. He's at the forefront of that. "The more effective we are, the more it opens up for him".
Reid, a former Democratic Senate leader , will receive chemotherapy in the next phase of his treatment, the statement said. Reid, 78, who spent decades in Democratic leadership in the Senate , is being treated at Johns Hopkins Cancer Center.
The aviation administration's Southwest Regional Administration said the crew handled the emergency correctly. CAAC also said that the windshield was part of the original aircraft and had no previously recorded faults.
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