Sunday, 21 October, 2018


World Health Organization certifies new typhoid vaccine with lasting immunity

Patty Aguilar | 12 January, 2018, 22:29

Bharat Biotech has received a pre-qualification from the World Health Organisation (WHO) for Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine.

Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech would shortly be sending another 2,00,000 doses of its Typbar TCV vaccine to Pakistan's Hyderabad province that has been battling for the past eight months a severe drug resistant version of the disease, which killed hundreds of children.

Prequalification of the vaccine by World Health Organization connotes that the vaccine meets acceptable standards of quality, safety, and efficacy.

Prequalification is a crucial next step to enable vaccines to become available in low-income countries, where the need is the greatest.

The new vaccine was found to be more effective as it gives longer immunity from typhoid than older vaccines and it required fewer doses for childhood immunisation.

In October 2017, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization, which advises the World Health Organization, recommended TCV for routine use in children over 6 months of age in typhoid endemic countries.

It is often spread through contaminated food and water.

Typhoid symptoms of typhoid include lasting high fevers, weakness, stomach pains, headache, and loss of appetite. Some patients have constipation, and some have a rash. Internal bleeding and death can occur but are rare, reports the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In most developing countries the cost of a course for typhoid fever ranges from $50 to $5000 for outpatient and inpatient treatment.

"Since preventing typhoid will reduce disease and with it AMR, I think it's an important vaccine in South Asia, where the burden of typhoid, and the AMR burden, are growing", said Ramanan Laxminarayan, senior research scholar and lecturer at Princeton Environmental Institute. Around 300 people still get typhoid fever in the United States each year, mostly from tourists.

"Typhoid is hugely underdiagnosed and most people are not given appropriate treatment, leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR)". There have been 1,28,000 deaths due to typhoid annually. Urbanization and climate change have the potential to increase the global burden of typhoid. Now available typhoid vaccines fail to provide long term protection and protection for children below 2 years of age. One is an inactivated (killed) vaccine gotten as a shot, and the other is a live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine, which is taken orally. A single dose offers 87 per cent protective efficacy against typhoid.

Four doses, given two days apart, are needed for protection.

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